The 2001 Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) is a standardized measure based on new national norms that were collected February 1999-January 2000. The CBCL is to be completed by the parent/caretaker who spends the most time with the child. The CBCL/6-18 provides ratings for 20 competence and 120 problem items paralleling the Youth Self-Report (YSR) and the Teacher’s Report Form (TRF). The CBCL/6-18 includes open-ended items covering physical problems, concerns, and strengths. Parents rate how true each item is now, or was within the past 6 months, using the same 3- point scale utilized on the YSR and TRF. The CBCL/6-18 yields scores on internalizing, externalizing, and total problems as well as scores on DSM-IV related scales. It is one of the most widely used outcome measures.
Achenbach, T.M., & Rescorla, L.A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families.
1. 3-point Likert-type scale: 0=Not true, 1=Somewhat or Sometimes true, 2=Very true or Often true 2. Fill in the blank.
|Social Functioning||Activities||Please list your child’s favorite hobbies, activities, and games, other than sports.|
|Social||Please list any organizations, clubs, teams, or groups your child belongs to.|
|Mood and Anxiety Symptoms (child)||Anxious/Depressed||Cries a lot.|
|Withdrawn/Depressed||There is very little he/she enjoys.|
|Somatic Complaints||Feels dizzy or lightheaded.|
|Externalizing Symptoms||Rule-Breaking Behavior||Doesn’t seem to feel guilty after misbehaving.|
|Aggressive Behavior||Argues a lot.|
Parallel or Alternate Forms
Youth Self-Report (YSR) and Teacher Report Form (TRF) are related questionnaires used with different informants. The CBCL is available for two age ranges: CBCL 1½-5 and CBCL/6-18.
For the 2001 CBCL/6-18, of 2,181 children initially eligible, 2,029 parents completed the CBCL (93.0%). TRFs & YSRs were administered as well. From this sample, children who did not receive mental health, substance abuse, or major special education services within the previous 12 months were retained. This left a non-referred total sample of 1,753 children from 40 states. Two age groups were constructed (6-11) and (12-18), and genders were separated. The normative sample consisted of the following demographic characteristics: 44% boys and 56% girls; 33% upper-class, 51% middle class, 16% lower class; 60% non-Latino White, 20% African American, 9% Latino, 12% mixed or other; 17% Northeast, 19% Midwest, 40% South, and 23% West. Respondents consisted of 72% mothers, 23% fathers, and 5% other (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001).
T-Scores: 65-69 (Borderline), 70+ (Clinical), no T-score >100 or <50 are generated for narrow band scales. T scores as low as 26 are generated for Total Problems and as low as 10 for Total Competence.
|Internal Consistency||Cronbach's alpha||0.63||0.97||0.8|
1. All reliability was reported for Scale Scores. 2. Inter-Rater: Between parents
1. Measure Development: Extensive literature searches were conducted. Mental health professionals and educators were consulted, and pilot tests were run in creating this measure. 2. The current CBCL measure has been refined after years of use. Old items that failed to discriminate significantly have been replaced, and slight changes were made in the wording of various items to make them clearer. Currently, all the items discriminate between referred and nonreferred demographically similar children (p<.01). (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001).
|Validity Type||Not known||Not found||Nonclincal Samples||Clinical Samples||Diverse Samples|
|Sensitive to Change||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Sensitive to Theoretically Distinct Groups||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|Not Known||Not Found||Nonclinical Samples||Clinical Samples||Diverse Samples|
ASEBA does not report positive or negative power because the results are confounded with the cut points and sample characteristics.
Psychometrics for this study are very good.
|Language:||Translated||Back Translated||Reliable||Good Psychometrics||Similar Factor Structure||Norms Available||Measure Developed for this Group|
|6. American Sign Language||Yes|
The 1983 original sample used to develop the measure consisted of 2,300 children assessed at 42 mental health agencies. The children were 4-16 years of age with diverse problems. The sample included children from diverse ethnic groups, SES levels, and locations.
|Population Type:||Measure Used with Members of this Group||Members of this Group Studied in Peer-Reviewed Journals||Reliable||Good Psychometrics||Norms Available||Measure Developed for this Group|
|1. Developmental disability||Yes||Yes|
|3. Lower socio-economic status||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4. Rural populations||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|5. Child abuse||Yes||Yes||Yes|
Pros & Cons/References
1. Well researched and widely used. 2. Newly revised measure. 3. DSM-IV oriented. 4. Provides information on strengths of the child. 5. Inexpensive to administer and score. 6. Computer-generated reports are available with clinician-friendly feedback. 7. Parallel forms are available. 8. A computer utility called “A2S” is available from ASEBA to easily export data to SPSS.
1. Can be a time consuming measure to complete. 2. Potential for self-report bias. 3. No assessment of profile validity. 4. Spanish speakers sometimes report having problems understanding the measure.
The reference for the manual is: Achenbach, T.M. & Rescorla, L.A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA School-Age Forms & Profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families. Note: Numbers provided are based on the manual and the author. To obtain a full list of references, please see: Bérubé, R. L., & Achenbach, T.M. (2005). Bibliography of published studies using ASEBA instruments: 2005 edition. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, & Families; or contact ASEBA.• A PsychInfo search (5/05) for “Child Behavior Checklist” or “CBCL” AND “6-18” anywhere revealed that the CBCL/6-18 has been referenced in 76 peer-reviewed journal articles. Discrepancy between this number and the number provided by authors may be related to search terms. Searching only for “Child Behavior Checklist” or “CBCL” yields 4,437 peer reviewed journal articles, but this includes earlier versions of the measure. In addition, the measure has been used in many other countries, and articles from those countries may not be available in PsychInfo. 1. Achenbach, T. M., Howell, C., McConaughy, S. H., & Stanger, C. (1995). Six-year predictors of problems in a national sample of children and youth: I. Cross-informant syndromes. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 336-347.