Summary: Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, and Wraith R. "A developmental model of childhood traumatic stress," in Cicchetti D and Cohen DJ, Developmental Psychopathology, vol. 2: Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation. 72-95. New York, Wiley. 1995.

This chapter presents a model of child trauma that stresses the importance of children's developmental pathways family factors, and social expectations and forces. The model expands upon one that was presented in Pynoos's 1993 work, "Traumatic stress and developmental psychopathology in children and adolescents."

A traumatic event is not simply a one-time occurrence that is experienced, processed, and put aside. In the case of repeated traumatization-ongoing abuse, community violence, or living in a war zone, for example-this is apparent. But even a single trauma has repercussions beyond the moment of occurrence and immediate aftermath. In the near term, traumatic reminders and secondary stressors may continue to be a challenging source of distress for the child. The interplay of the child's own temperament and developmental stage with such factors as family dynamics and social support shape long-term outcomes following trauma. In the long term, later traumatic reminders, secondary stressors, and stress-related pathology impact upon the child's ongoing adjustment.