Summary: Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, and Goenjian AK. "Traumatic stress in childhood and adolescence: Recent developments and current controversies," in Van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, and Weisæth L, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. 331-358. New York, Guilford Press. 1996.

This chapter presents an overview of the field of research in child traumatic stress. It argues for the need to take a developmental approach to how traumatic stress in children is understood, assessed, and treated. Drawing on a wide body of research, the authors discuss how children at different developmental stages process trauma. They address how traumatic exposure may interfere with the normal developmental process in children, resulting in regressive behavior, difficulties with peer and family relationships, learning problems, and personality disorders. As researchers and clinicians work to understand and treat traumatized children and adolescents, their work should be guided by attention to developmental processes and outcomes.