"What Is Child Traumatic Stress?" Reading List

This reading list was compiled by experts in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network. It includes important recent work as well as classic books and articles on child traumatic stress by Network and other experts in the field.

Clicking on SUMMARY will open a new window with a summary of the selected article. We provide in-depth summaries for many of the works written by members of the NCTSN.

Because most books and articles are protected by copyright law, we cannot provide copies of them or links to full text. But whenever possible, we have provided links to articles on publishers' websites, where you may be able to access the full article, depending on the publisher's policy. You can also contact your local public, medical, or university library for help if you would like to read the full publications.

Amaya-Jackson L. "Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents." In Kaplan and Sadock, eds, Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, VII Edition. Lippencott Williams & Wilkins. 2000. SUMMARY

Berliner L, Hyman IE, Thomas A, and Fitzgerald M. "Children's memory for trauma and positive experiences," Journal of Traumatic Stress vol 16(3): 229-236. 2003. doi: 10.1023/A:1023787805970 SUMMARY

Browne A and Finkelhor D. "Impact of child sexual abuse: A review of the research," Psychological Bulletin vol 99(1): 66-77. 1986.

Charney DS, Deutch AY, Krystal JH, Southwick SM, and Davis M. "Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder," Archives of General Psychiatry vol 50(4): 294-305. 1993.

Cicchetti D and Toth SL. "A developmental psychopathology perspective on child abuse and neglect," Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry vol 34: 541-565. 1995.

Cohen J, Perel J, DeBellis M, Friedman M, and Putnam F. "Treating traumatized children: Clinical implications of the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder," Trauma, Violence and Abuse vol 3(2): 91-108. 2002. doi:10.1177/15248380020032001

Cohen JA, Deblinger E, Mannarino AP, and De Arellano MA. "The importance of culture in treating abused and neglected children: An empirical review," Child Maltreatment vol 6(2): 148-157. 2001. doi:10.1177/1077559501006002007 SUMMARY

Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Fairbank JA, and Angold A. "The prevalence of potentially traumatic events in childhood and adolescence," Journal of Traumatic Stress vol 15(2): 99-112. 2002. doi: 10.1023/A:1014851823163 SUMMARY

DeBellis M, Baum AS, Birmaher B, Keshavan M, Eccard CH, Boring, AM, Jenkins FJ, and Ryan N. "Developmental traumatology: Biological stress systems and brain development in maltreated children with PTSD," Biological Psychiatry vol 45(10): 1259-1270 (part I) and 1271-1284 (part II). 1999. Click here to find part I on the publisher's website. Click here to find part II on the publisher's website.

DeBellis MD and Putnam FW. "The psychobiology of childhood maltreatment," Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol 3(4): 663-677.1994.

Fairbank JA, Ebert L, and Caddell JM. "Posttraumatic stress disorder." In Sutker PB and Adams HE, eds, Comprehensive Handbook of Psychopathology. 183-209. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. 2001. SUMMARY

Fairbank JA, Ebert L, and Zarkin GA. "Socioeconomic consequences of traumatic stress." In Saigh PA and Bremner JD, eds, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Comprehensive Text. Boston, Allyn and Bacon. 1999. SUMMARY

Kendall-Tackett KA, Williams LM, and Finkelhor D. "Impact of sexual abuse on children: A review and synthesis of recent empirical studies," Psychological Bulletin vol 113(1): 164-180. 1993. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.164

MacMillan HL. "Child maltreatment: What we know in the year 2000," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry vol 45(8): 702-709. 2000.

Ornitz E and Pynoos RS. "Startle modulation in children with post-traumatic stress disorder," American Journal of Psychiatry vol 146(7): 866-870. 1989.

Perry BD. "Neurobiological sequelae of childhood trauma: Post-traumatic stress disorders in children." In Murberg M, ed, Catecholamine Function in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Emerging Concepts, 233-255. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. 1994.

Perry BD, Pollard RA, Blakely TL, Baker WL, and Vigilante D. "Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and use-dependent development of the brain: How 'states' become 'traits,'" Infant Mental Health Journal vol 16: 271-291. 1995.

Pine DS and Cohen JA. "Trauma in children and adolescents: Risk and treatment of psychiatric sequelae," Biological Psychiatry vol 51(7): 519-531. 2002. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Putnam FW. "Dissociative disorders in children: Behavioral profiles and problems," Child Abuse and Neglect vol 17(1): 39-45. 1993. 

Putnam FW. "Trauma models of the effects of childhood maltreatment," Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment and Trauma 2(1): 51-66. 1998. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS. "Traumatic stress and developmental psychopathology in children and adolescents." In Oldham JM, Riba MB, and Tasman A, American Psychiatric Press Review of Psychiatry vol 12: 205-238. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press. 1993. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS and Steinberg AM. "Posttraumatic stress disorder." In Sacks MH, Sledge WH, and Warren C, eds, Core Readings in Psychiatry: An Annotated Guide to the Literature Second Edition, 315-329. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press 1995.

Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, and Aronson L. "Traumatic experiences: The early organization of memory in school-age children and adolescents." In Appelbaum PS, Uyehara LA, and Elin MR, Trauma and Memory: Clinical and Legal Controversies. 272-289. New York, Oxford University Press. 1997. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, and Goenjian AK. "Traumatic stress in childhood and adolescence: Recent developments and current controversies." In van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, and Weisæth L, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body, and Society. 331-358. New York, Guilford Press. 1996. SUMMARY

Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, Ornitz EM, and Goenjian AK. "Issues in the developmental neurobiology of traumatic stress," Annuals of the New York Academy of Science vol 821(6): 176-193. 1997.

Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, and Piacentini JC. "A developmental psychopathology model of childhood traumatic stress and intersection with anxiety disorders," Biological Psychiatry vol 46(11): 1542-1554. 1999. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website.

Pynoos RS, Steinberg AM, and Wraith R. "A developmental model of childhood traumatic stress." In Cicchetti D and Cohen DJ, Developmental Psychopathology, vol. 2: Risk, Disorder, and Adaptation. 72-95. New York, Wiley. 1995. SUMMARY

Saigh PA, Mroueh M, Zimmerman BJ, and Fairbank JA. "Self-efficacy expectations among traumatized adolescents," Behaviour Research and Therapy vol 33(6): 701-704. 1995. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website. SUMMARY

Silva RR, Alpert M, Munoz DM, Kim JI, Matzner F, and Dummit S. "Stress and vulnerability in children and adolescents," American Journal of Psychiatry vol 157(8): 1229-1235. 2000. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website.

Silverman AB, Reinherz HZ, and Giaconia RM. "The long-term sequelae of child and adolescent abuse: A longitudinal community study," Child Abuse and Neglect, vol 20(8): 709-723. 1996. Click here to find this article on the publisher's website.

van der Kolk BA. "The body keeps the score: Approaches to the psychobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder." In van der Kolk BA, McFarlane AC, and Weisaeth L, eds, Traumatic Stress: The Effects of Overwhelming Experience on Mind, Body and Society, 214-241. New York, Guilford Press. 1997.

van der Kolk BA: "The assessment and treatment of complex PTSD." In Yehuda R, ed, Treating Trauma Survivors with PTSD, 127-156. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2002.

Ver EP and Van Kammen DP. "The biological findings in post-traumatic stress disorder: A review," Journal of Applied Social Psychology vol 20: 1789-1821. 1990. doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb01512.x