References and Links

Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index: Professional manual (3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) school-age forms and profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.

Beach, P. S., & McCormick, D. P. (1997). Maintaining health in the infant and preschool child. In C. W. Daeschner, & C. J. Richardson (Eds.), Pediatrics: An approach to independent learning (pp. 87-103). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Briere, J., Johnson, K., Bissada, A., Damon, L., Crouch, J., Gil, E., et al. (2001). The Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children (TSCYC): Reliability and exposure to abuse exposure in a multi-site study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25(8), 1001-1014.

Chalk, R., & King, P. A. (Eds.). (1998). Violence in families: Assessing prevention and treatment programs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Crusto, C. A., Finley, M., Kaufman, J., Griffin, A., Berson, I., & Garcia-Casellas, M., et al. (2009, March). Characteristics of children presenting to early childhood mental health systems of care. Paper presented at the annual research conference of the Research & Training Center (RTC) for Children's Mental Health, Tampa, FL. Retrieved November 6, 2009, from

Davidson, J. R. T. (1996). Davidson Trauma Scale. North Tonawanda, NY: MHS Inc.

Dicker, S., Gordon, E., & Knitzer, J. (2001). Improving the odds for the healthy development of young children in foster care. New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 19, 2009, from

Egger, H., & Angold, A. (1999). The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA): A structured parent interview for diagnosing psychiatric disorders in preschool children. Durham, NC: Duke University, Center for Developmental Epidemiology.

Egger, H., & Angold, A. (2004). Stressful life events and PTSD in preschool children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

Eisen, M. (1997). Post Traumatic Symptom Inventory for Children. Unpublished data, California State University, Department of Psychology.

Fantuzzo, J., Boruch, R., Beriama, A., & Atkins, M. (1997). Domestic violence and children: Prevalence and risk in five major U.S. cities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(12), 116-122.

Ghosh-Ippen, C., Ford, J., Racusin, R., Acker, M., Bousquet, K., Rogers, C., et al. (2002). Traumatic Events Screening Inventory: Parent report revised. San Francisco: The Child Trauma Research Project of the Early Trauma Network and The National Center for PTSD Dartmouth Child Trauma Research Group.

Grossman, D. C. (2000). The history of injury control and the epidemiology of child and adolescent injuries. The Future of Children, 10(1), 4-22.

Kolko, D. J., & Swenson, C. C. (2002). Assessing and treating physically abused children and their families: A cognitive behavioral approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.

Levendosky, A. A., Huth-Bocks, A. C., Semel, M. A.., & Shapiro, D. L. (2002). Trauma symptoms in preschool-age children exposed to domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(2), 150-164.

National Child Traumatic Stress Network (2009). [Core Data Set]. Unpublished data.

Scheeringa, M. S., & Zeanah, C. H. (1994). PTSD semi-structured interview and observation record for infants and young children. New Orleans: Tulane University Health Sciences Center, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology.

Shahinfar, A., Fox, N. A., & Leavitt, L. A. (2000). Preschool children's exposure to violence: Relation of behavior problems to parent and child reports. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1), 115-125.

Taylor, L., Zuckerman, B., Harik, V., & Groves, B. M. (1994). Witnessing violence by young children and their mothers. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 15(2), 120-123.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth & Families. (2010). Child maltreatment 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Wolfe, J., Kimerling, R., Brown, P. J., Chrestman, K. R., & Levin, K. (1996). Psychometric review of the Life Stressor Checklist—Revised. In B. H. Stamm (Ed.), Measurement of stress, trauma, and adaptation (pp. 198-201). Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.

Wulczyn, F., Hislop, K., & Jones, B. H. (2002). The placement of infants in foster care. Infant Mental Health Journal, 23(5), 454-475.


Center on the Developing Child

Child Witness to Violence Project, Boston Medical Center

Children's Relief Nursery

How Kids Develop

Zero to Three

Center on the Developing Child
Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain

NCTSN resources

Other resources