Post Traumatic Symptom Inventory for Children

Submitted by mholliday on Tue, 10/16/2012 - 09:48

Overview

Acronym: 
PT-SIC
Citation: 

Eisen, M. (1997). The Development and Validation of a New Measure of PTSD for Young Children. Unpublished Manuscript.

Obtain(Email/Website): 

meisen@calstatela.edu

Cost: 
Free
Copyrighted: 
No
Measure Description: 

The PT-SIC is a self-report measure of PTSD symptoms for
children aged 4-8. It assesses the DSM-IV criteria for the
diagnosis of PTSD. The language is simple, to allow young
children to respond to the questions in an interview format. The
measure includes several validity questions to ensure that the
child understands how to respond and endorses everyday
complaints.

Domain(s) Assessed : 
Trauma Exposure/Reminders
Traumatic Stress
Language(s) : 
English
Age Range: 
4-8
Measure Type: 
Screening
# of Items: 
30
Measure Format: 
Questionnaire
Average Time to Complete (min): 
30
Reporter Type: 
Self
Average Time to Score (min): 
15
Periodicity: 
None specified.
Response Format: 

Child answers Yes or No (If Yes, specify whether it's a real lot, like almost every day, or just sometimes).

Materials Needed: 
Paper/Pencil
Sample Item(s): 
DomainsScaleSample Items
PTSD-Related Symptomatology (child)Criteria A: Trauma ExposureDo you ever hear gun shots around your
neighborhood? Did you ever see a car crash or a big
fire?
 Criteria B: ReexperiencingSome children think about really bad things that
happened to them. Do you think about really bad things
that happened to you? Do you think about these bad
things a whole lot like everyday or just sometimes?
 Criteria C : AvoidanceSome children can’t remember bad or scary things. Is it
sometimes hard for you to remember bad or scary
things?
 Criteria D : HyperarousalSome children can’t fall asleep because they are
thinking about bad or scary things that happened. Is it
ever hard for you to sleep because you’re thinking about
really bad or scary things?
Information Provided: 
Areas of Concern/Risks
Continuous Assessment
Diagnostic Info DSM IV
Dichotomous Assessment
Raw Scores

Training

Administration Training: 
> Or = to 4 Hours Training by Experienced Clinician
Training to Interpret: 
Training by Experienced Clinician (<4 hours)

Parallel/Alternate Forms

Parallel Form: 
No
Alternate Form: 
No
Different Age Forms: 
No
Altered Version Forms: 
No

Psychometrics

Clinical Cutoffs: 
Yes
If Yes, Specify Cutoffs: 
Score 2+ on a symptom indicates child meets criteria for symptom. DSM-IV PTSD diagnosed by totaling symptoms in each category (B,C,D) and determining if required number of symptoms in each category are met for PTSD diagnosis.
Reliability: 
Type:RatingStatisticsMinMaxAvg
Test-Retest-# days: 14Acceptabler0.
Internal ConsistencyCronbach's alpha
Inter-raterNot known
Parallel/Alternate FormsNot known
References for Content Validity: 

A working group of clinicians and graduate students assessed an initial pool of 130 items
that were designed to assess the 17 criteria for PTSD. Following their review a pool of 101
items remained. Fourteen clinicians (seven licensed psychologists and seven advanced
graduate students) who specialized in working with traumatized children were asked to rate
how well each item fit the symptom criteria it was matched to on a 1-4 scale (4=excellent,
3=good fit, 2=average fit, 1=poor fit). Items with an average score of 2.7 or higher were the
only ones retained.

The instrument with 81 items was then administered to 70 maltreated children. Afterward, 51
questions were dropped from the measure due to children's inability to understand and
reliably answer each question. The remaining 30 items were sent out to several
internationally recognized experts on trauma for commentary. Wording revisions were made
to these 30 items based on this feedback, resulting in the final 30 items. Consistent with
DSM-IV criteria for PTSD.

Construct Validity: 
Validity TypeNot knownNot foundNonclincal SamplesClinical SamplesDiverse Samples
Convergent/ConcurrentYesYes
DiscriminantYes
Sensitive to ChangeYes
Intervention EffectsYes
Longitudinal/Maturation EffectsYes
Sensitive to Theoretically Distinct GroupsYes
Factorial ValidityYes
References for Construct Validity: 

TSCC (r=.66), Child Dissociate Checklist and the Children's Perceptual
Alteration Scale (r=.38).

Also measure does show evidence of factorial validity. It has two main factors:
Reexperiencing (alpha=.74) and Fear and Hyperarousal (alpha=70).

Criterion Validity: 
Not KnownNot FoundNonclinical SamplesClinical SamplesDiverse Samples
Predictive Validity:Yes
Postdictive Validity: Yes
Sensitivity Rate Score: 
0.14
Overall Psychometric Limitations: 

Psychometrics were collected using a sample of children aged 4-17. It is unclear how many
young children (aged 4-8) were sampled. Since the measure was developed specifically for
the young age range, more data and psychometric information is need with this age group.

Translation Quality

Language(s) Other Than English: 
Language:Translated234567
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Population Information

Population Used For Measure Development: 

1. 70 Maltreated children were interviewed in the item selection phase of measure
development. No ethnicity, SES, region/location/city, education level, or age range of
these children were provided. Abuse was physical or sexual abuse, having their life
threatened, hearing gunshots, or being in a serious accident.

2. 400 children aged 4-17 were screened. 220 children aged 4-17 were interviewed using
the PT-SIC as part of an assessment for allegations of abuse and neglect. These 220
endorsed a potentially traumatic event and were administered the full PT-SIC. Children
were from Mt. Sinai Hospital's Under the Rainbow Program in Chicago, Illinois. No
ethnicity, SES, or education level for these children was provided.

Measure has demonstrated evidence of reliability and validity in which populations?: 
Other
Use with Diverse Populations: 
Population Type: 123456

Pros & Cons/References

Pros: 

1. One of the few measures developed to directly interview young children about PTSD symptoms.

Cons: 

1. Some of the language still appears somewhat complex for young children.
2. There are limited psychometric data available.
3. Not widely used or shown valid among different cultures. No translations available.

References: 

A PsychInfo search (6/05) for “Post Traumatic Symptom Inventory for Children” or “PT-SIC”
anywhere revealed that the measure has been referenced in 0 peer-reviewed journal
articles.

Developer of Review: 
Carla Stover, Ph.D.
Editor of Review: 
Madhur Kulkarni, M.S., Chandra Ghosh Ippen, Ph.D.
Last Updated: 
Mon, 01/20/2014
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